Development of Questionnaire to Examine Relationship of Physical Activity and Diabetes in Pima Indians
There was a need to design a questionnaire that could accurately assess the activity patterns of Native Americans to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and diabetes. Such a questionnaire was developed and implemented into the data collection scheme of the prospective Pima Indian Study of Arizona. The questionnaire, which assesses historical, past-year, and past-week leisure and occupational activity, was examined in 29 Pima individuals aged 21–36 yr and was shown to be reliable with test-retest correlations (rank-order correlations ranged from 0.62 to 0.96 for leisure and occupational activity). Reproducibility of the past-year leisure physical-activity estimate was determined in 69 participants aged 10-59 yr and was found to be reliable in all age-groups with the exception of the 10- to 14-yr-old age-group (rank-order correlations were 0.31 in the 10- to 14-yr-old age-group compared to 0.88 to 0.92 in those >20 yr of age). Validity of the current-activity section of the questionnaire was demonstrated indirectly through comparisons with activity monitors. The past-week leisure-activity estimate was related to the Caltrac activity monitor counts per hour (p = 0.62, P > 0.05, n = 17). In summary, a physical-activity questionnaire has been developed that is both reliable and feasible to use in the Pima Indian population to evaluate the relationship of physical activity to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
- Received August 16, 1989.
- Revision received October 18, 1989.
- Accepted October 18, 1989.
- Copyright © 1990 by the American Diabetes Association