Abdominal Obesity and Physical Inactivity as Risk Factors for NIDDM and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Indian, Creole, and Chinese Mauritians
- Gary K Dowse, MBBS, MSc,
- Paul Z Zimmet, MD, PhD,
- Hassam Gareeboo, MBBS,
- K George M M Alberti, MD, Dphil,
- Jaakko Tuomilehto, MD, PhD,
- Caroline F Finch, MSc,
- Pierrot Chitson, MBBS and
- Harish Tulsidas, MBBS
- World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for the Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus and Health Promotion for Noncommunicable Disease Control, International Diabetes Institute Melbourne, Australia Ministry of Health Port Louis, Mauritius Human Diabetes and Metabolism Research Centre and the Department of Medicine, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom Department of Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute Helsinki, Finland
- Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Gary K. Dowse, International Diabetes Institute, Caulfield General Medical Centre, 260 Kooyong Road, Caulfield South, Victoria 3162, Australia.
Objective We wanted to determine whether obesity, abdominal fat distribution, and physical inactivity act similarly and independently as risk factors for noninsulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Hindu and Muslim Asian Indians, African-origin Creoles, and Chinese Mauritians.
Research Design and Methods We examined a population-based random cluster sample of 5080 adult subjects from the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Glucose tolerance was assessed with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and World Health Organization criteria.
Results Univariate data and multiple logistic regression models indicated that age, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), waisthip ratio (WHR), and physical inactivity conveyed similar risk for NIDDM (and IGT) in each ethnic group. After adjusting for all other factors, Hindu ethnicity conferred additional risk for NIDDM (but not IGT) in men, but in women there were no clear ethnic differences. Although BMI and WHR were independently significant risk factors, WHR conveyed relatively stronger risk for NIDDM than BMI in women, whereas the converse was true in men. For ethnic groups combined, the independent odds ratios for IGT associated with moderate and low physical activity scores (relative to high) were 1.56 and 1.71 (P < 0.05), respectively, in men and 1.32 and 1.69 (P < 0.05) in women. In subjects with asymptomatic NIDDM diagnosed during the survey, the independent odds ratios were 1.96 and 2.00 (P < 0.05) in men and 1.73 and 2.70 (P < 0.05) in women.
Conclusions These data indicate that BMI, abdominally distributed fat, and physical inactivity are important independent risk factors for both IGT and NIDDM in diverse ethnic groups. Attributable risk fractions for Mauritius suggest that populationwide modification of levels of these risk factors could potentially result in substantially lower occurrence of NIDDM (and IGT). Such interventions should be attempted in high-risk populations.
- Received May 25, 1990.
- Accepted November 29, 1990.
- Copyright © 1991 by the American Diabetes Association