Perceived Symptoms in the Recognition of Hypoglycemia
- Daniel J Cox, PHD,
- Linda Gonder-Frederick, PHD,
- Basim Antoun, MD,
- Philip E Cryer, MD and
- William L Clarke, MD
- University of Virginia Health Sciences Center Charlottesville, Virginia Washington University St. Louis, Missouri
- Address Correspondence and Reprint Requests to Daniel J. Cox, Behavioral Medicine Center, Drawer F, Blue Ridge Hospital, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901.
For people with diabetes, detection of hypoglycemic symptoms is a critical tool for the recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia. This is not a simple process involving only the occurrence of a hypoglycemic-relevant physiological event, such as sweating. We propose a four-step biological and psychological model that leads to the accurate recognition of hypoglycemia through symptoms. The model illustrates both the chronic and transient modifiers that can enhance and interfere with recognition of hypoglycemia. Three common methods are used to investigate the occurrence and utility of hypoglycemic symptoms that relate to this model. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, providing previously unpublished illustrative data. The field study hit/false alarm approach was shown to be the most useful method. The relevance of this model and data to the concept of hypoglycemic awareness/unawareness and blood glucose awareness training is discussed.
- Copyright © 1993 by the American Diabetes Association