The Development of Foot Deformities and Ulcers After Great Toe Amputation in Diabetes
- Department of Orthopedics, The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Texas
- Mexican American Medical Treatment Effectiveness Research Center San Antonio, Texas
- Department of Mathematical Sciences, The United States Military Academy West Point, New York
- Address correspondence and reprint requests to Terri L. Quebedeaux, DPM, Department of Orthopaedies, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr., San Antonio, TX 78284-7776. E-mail:
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to compare the prevalence and severity of foot deformities and the development of ulcerations in patients after a great toe amputations.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the presence of deformities of the toes and metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) in patients with a great toe amputation who had an intact unamputated contralateral foot. The contralateral foot served as the patient's own control. We used a binomial test for paired data to compare the presence of deformity and ulcer formation and Fisher's exact test to compare joint flexibility in toes and MTPJs with foot deformities.
RESULTS There were more deformities of the second (P = 0.012) and third (P = 0.002) toes and lesser MTPJs (P < 0.05) and more rigid deformities of the second (P = 0.002) and third (P = 0.016) toes and second MTPJs (P = 0.035) in feet with great toe amputations. New ulcers were more common in feet that had an amputation (P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS We concluded that amputation of the great toe contributes to the development of deformities of the second and third toes and lesser MTPJs and new ulcer formation in patients with diabetes. When deformities were present, the second and third toes and second MTPJ were more severe in feet with a great toe amputation.
- Received April 14, 1995.
- Accepted September 28, 1995.
- Copyright © 1996 by the American Diabetes Association