OBJECTIVE: To analyze a transcutaneous near-infrared spectroscopy system as a technique for in vivo noninvasive blood glucose monitoring during euglycemia and hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten nondiabetic subjects and two patients with type 1 diabetes were examined in a total of 27 studies. In each study, the subject's plasma glucose was lowered to a hypoglycemia level (approximately 55 mg/dl) followed by recovery to a glycemic level of approximately 115 mg/dl using an intravenous infusion of insulin and 20% dextrose. Plasma glucose levels were determined at 5-min intervals by standard glucose oxidase method and simultaneously by a near-infrared spectroscopic system. The plasma glucose measured by the standard method was used to create a calibration model that could predict glucose levels from the near-infrared spectral data. The two data sets were correlated during the decline and recovery in plasma glucose, within 10 mg/dl plasma glucose ranges, and were examined using the Clarke Error Grid Analysis. RESULTS: Two sets of 1,704 plasma glucose determinations were examined. The near-infrared predictions during the fall and recovery in plasma glucose were highly correlated (r = 0.96 and 0.95, respectively). When analyzed during 10 mg/dl plasma glucose segments, the mean absolute difference between the near-infrared spectroscopy method and the chemometric reference ranged from 3.3 to 4.4 mg/dl in the nondiabetic subjects and from 2.6 to 3.8 mg/dl in the patients with type 1 diabetes. Using the Error Grid Analysis, 97.7% of all the near-infrared predictions were assigned to the A-zone. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the near-infrared spectroscopy method can accurately predict plasma glucose levels during euglycemia and hypoglycemia in humans.