Use of insulin lispro in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment. Results of a multicenter trial. German Humalog-CSII Study Group.
OBJECTIVE: Insulin lispro is an analog of human insulin with a faster onset and a shorter duration of action than regular human insulin. Efficacy and tolerability of insulin lispro in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment were assessed in an open randomized crossover trial comparing insulin lispro and regular human insulin, both applied with insulin pumps. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 113 type 1 patients (60 male, 53 female, age [mean +/- SD] 37 +/- 12 years, duration of diabetes 19 +/- 9 years) participated in this open, randomized crossover study. Both insulins were applied for 4 months each with the appropriate intervals between the prandial insulin bolus and the meal (human insulin: 30 min; lispro: 0 min). Observation parameters were HbA1c, daily and postprandial blood glucose profiles, adverse events, rate of hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events, number of catheter obstructions, and treatment satisfaction as assessed with an international validated questionnaire. RESULTS: The patients were well controlled with a mean HBA1c of 7.24 +/- 1.0% at baseline. HbA1c decreased in both treatment periods, but it was better during insulin lispro treatment (insulin lispro: 6.8 +/- 0.9%, regular human insulin: 6.9 +/- 1.0%, Friedman's rank-sum test: P < 0.02). In addition, the 1-h and 2-h postprandial rises in blood glucose were significantly lower (P < 0.001 for each meal) with insulin lispro, resulting in smoother daily glucose profiles as compared with regular human insulin. No significant differences were reported for the rate of hypoglycemia (mean +/- SD [median]: insulin lispro 12.4 +/- 13.9 , regular human insulin 11.0 +/- 11.2 ), for the rate of catheter obstructions (42 events in each treatment arm), and for the number and type of adverse events. No severe case of ketoacidosis was seen during insulin lispro treatment, whereas one case was reported during therapy with regular human insulin. Treatment satisfaction was better when patients were treated with insulin lispro. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin lispro is a suitable and very convenient pump insulin that may result in an improvement of long-term glucose control during CSII treatment. Its safety profile does not differ from that of regular human insulin.