Rapid and short-acting mealtime insulin secretion with nateglinide controls both prandial and mean glycemia.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of four fixed doses of nateglinide compared with placebo in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes with focus on the prandial state. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study was conducted in 289 patients who received either nateglinide at doses of 30 mg (n = 51), 60 mg (n = 58), 120 mg (n = 63), or 180 mg (n = 57) or placebo (n = 60) before three main meals for 12 weeks. Levels of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fructosamine, and plasma lipids were measured at predetermined intervals, and the effects of nateglinide on prandial glucose insulin, C-peptide, and triglyceride levels were measured after a liquid standard meal (Sustacal; Mead Johnson, Evansville, IN). Adverse events and hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. RESULTS: After a liquid meal challenge, nateglinide rapidly increased mealtime insulin levels within 30 min of drug intake and reduced mealtime glucose excursions without affecting triglyceride levels. At study end point, reduction of HbA1c levels was statistically significantly greater with nateglinide at doses of 60, 120, and 180 mg than placebo (-0.45, -0.62, and -0.64%, respectively; P<0.05). The mean level of FPG was significantly reduced versus placebo in the nateglinide 120-mg group only (-1.14 mmol/l P<0.01). Overall, nateglinide was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that nateglinide improves mealtime and mean glycemic control in a dose-dependent manner by restoring early insulin secretion phase. Nateglinide was well tolerated and is suitable for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.