Consequences of a family history of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the phenotype of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. H Li,
  2. B Isomaa,
  3. M R Taskinen,
  4. L Groop and
  5. T Tuomi
  1. Department of Endocrinology, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a family history of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the phenotype of patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a population-based study, we compared the phenotype in 3 groups of patients with type 2 diabetes. The first group had no family history of diabetes (FH-, n = 148); the second group had a family history of type 2 diabetes only (FH+(TYPE2), n = 1,211); and the third group had a family history of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (FH+(MIXED), n = 240). Furthermore, we studied the frequency of GAD antibodies (GADabs), HLA-DQB1 risk genotypes, and the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD) according to family history in unrelated patients with type 2 diabetes from 787 families (148 FH-, 546 FH+(TYPE2) and 93 FH+(MIXED)). RESULTS: Patients with no family history of diabetes were older at the onset of the disease, had a better beta-cell function (P = 0.004), and had higher HDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.006) than patients with a family history of diabetes. Patients with a family history of only type 2 diabetes had higher BMI and fasting C-peptide concentrations (P = 0.031) but lower frequency of GADab (11 vs. 23%, P = 0.001) and DQB1 risk genotypes (37 vs. 54%, P = 0.003) compared with patients with a family history of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In addition, hypertension (P = 0.05) and CHD (P = 0.031) were more common in FH+(TYPE2) than in FH+(MIXED) patients. In patients <60 years old, a family history of type 1 diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of CHD independent of age, hypertension, and HDL cholesterol concentrations. The results were similar when the GADab+ patients were excluded from the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes had a profound influence on the phenotype of patients with type 2 diabetes, which suggests a genetic interaction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    | Table of Contents