The Diabetes Empowerment Scale: a measure of psychosocial self-efficacy.
- Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0201, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity, reliability, and utility of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), which is a measure of diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study (n = 375), the psychometric properties of the DES were calculated. To establish validity, DES subscales were compared with 2 previously validated subscales of the Diabetes Care Profile (DCP). Factor and item analyses were conducted to develop subscales that were coherent, meaningful, and had an acceptable coefficient alpha. RESULTS: The psychometric analyses resulted in a 28-item DES (alpha = 0.96) with 3 subscales: Managing the Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes (alpha = 0.93), Assessing Dissatisfaction and Readiness To Change (alpha = 0.81), and Setting and Achieving Diabetes Goals (alpha = 0.91). Consistent correlations in the expected direction between DES subscales and DCP subscales provided evidence of concurrent validity. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that the DES is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. The DES should be a useful outcome measure for various educational and psychosocial interventions related to diabetes.