Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injection regimens using insulin lispro in type 1 diabetic patients on intensified treatment: a randomized study. The Study Group for the Development of Pump Therapy in Diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of 2 intensified insulin regimens, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily injections (MDI), by using the short-acting insulin analog lispro in type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 41 C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic patients (age 43.5+/-10.3 years; 21 men and 20 women, BMI 24.0+/-2.4 kg/m2, diabetes duration 20.0+/-11.3 years) on intensified insulin therapy (MDI with regular insulin or lispro, n = 9, CSII with regular insulin, n = 32) were included in an open-label randomized crossover study comparing two 4-month periods of intensified insulin therapy with lispro: one period by MDI and the other by CSII. Blood glucose (BG) was monitored before and after each of the 3 meals each day. RESULTS: The basal insulin regimen had to be optimized in 75% of the patients during the MDI period (mean number of NPH injections per day = 2.65). HbA1c values were lower when lispro was used in CSII than in MDI (7.89+/-0.77 vs. 8.24+/-0.77%, P<0.001). BG levels were lower with CSII (165+/-27 vs. 175+/-33 mg/dl, P<0.05). The SD of all the BG values (73+/-15 vs. 82+/-18 mg/dl, P<0.01) was lower with CSII. The frequency of hypoglycemic events, defined as BG levels <60 mg/dl, did not differ significantly between the 2 modalities (CSII 3.9+/-4.2 per 14 days vs. MDI 4.3+/-3.9 per 14 days). Mean insulin doses were significantly lower with CSII than with MDI (38.5+/-9.8 vs. 47.3+/-14.9 U/day. respectively, P< 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: When used with external pumps versus MDI, lispro provides better glycemic control and stability with much lower doses of insulin and does not increase the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes.