Renal Gluconeogenesis

Its importance in human glucose homeostasis

  1. John E. Gerich, MD,
  2. Christian Meyer, MD,
  3. Hans J. Woerle, MD and
  4. Michael Stumvoll, MD
  1. From the Department of Medicine (J.E.G., C.M., H.J.W.), the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York; and the University of Tubingen (M.S.), Tubingen, Germany.
  1. Address correspondence to John E. Gerich, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Ave., Box MED/CRC, Rochester, NY 14642. E-mail: johngerich{at} . Address reprint requests to Cadmus Journal Services Reprints, P.O. Box 751903, Charlotte, NC 28275-1903.


Studies conducted over the last 60 years in animals and in vitro have provided considerable evidence that the mammalian kidney can make glucose and release it under various conditions. Until quite recently, however, it was generally believed that the human kidney was not an important source of glucose except during acidosis and after prolonged fasting. This review will summarize early work in animals and humans, discuss methodological problems in assessing renal glucose release in vivo, and present results of recent human studies that provide evidence that the kidney may play a significant role in carbohydrate metabolism under both physiological and pathological conditions.


  • Abbreviations: NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance.

  • A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

    • Accepted October 3, 2000.
    • Received June 21, 2000.
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