Effectiveness of Self-Management Training in Type 2 Diabetes
A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
- Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
OBJECTIVE—To systematically review the effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—MEDLINE, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), and Nursing and Allied Health databases were searched for English-language articles published between 1980 and 1999. Studies were original articles reporting the results of randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of self-management training in people with type 2 diabetes. Relevant data on study design, population demographics, interventions, outcomes, methodological quality, and external validity were tabulated. Interventions were categorized based on educational focus (information, lifestyle behaviors, mechanical skills, and coping skills), and outcomes were classified as knowledge, attitudes, and self-care skills; lifestyle behaviors, psychological outcomes, and quality of life; glycemic control; cardiovascular disease risk factors; and economic measures and health service utilization.
RESULTS—A total of 72 studies described in 84 articles were identified for this review. Positive effects of self-management training on knowledge, frequency and accuracy of self-monitoring of blood glucose, self-reported dietary habits, and glycemic control were demonstrated in studies with short follow-up (<6 months). Effects of interventions on lipids, physical activity, weight, and blood pressure were variable. With longer follow-up, interventions that used regular reinforcement throughout follow-up were sometimes effective in improving glycemic control. Educational interventions that involved patient collaboration may be more effective than didactic interventions in improving glycemic control, weight, and lipid profiles. No studies demonstrated the effectiveness of self-management training on cardiovascular disease–related events or mortality; no economic analyses included indirect costs; few studies examined health-care utilization. Performance, selection, attrition, and detection bias were common in studies reviewed, and external generalizability was often limited.
CONCLUSIONS—Evidence supports the effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes, particularly in the short term. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of self-management interventions on sustained glycemic control, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and ultimately, microvascular and cardiovascular disease and quality of life.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Susan L. Norris, MD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS K-10, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail:.
Received for publication 11 April 2000 and accepted in final form 19 October 2000.
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