Five-Week, Low–Glycemic Index Diet Decreases Total Fat Mass and Improves Plasma Lipid Profile in Moderately Overweight Nondiabetic Men

  1. Clara Bouché, MD1,
  2. Salwa W. Rizkalla, MD, PHD1,
  3. Jing Luo, MD, PHD1,
  4. Hubert Vidal, PHD2,
  5. Annie Veronese, MB1,
  6. Nathalie Pacher, MB1,
  7. Caroline Fouquet, RN1,
  8. Vincent Lang, PHD3 and
  9. Gérard Slama, MD1
  1. 1Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unit 341, Department of Diabetes, AP Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Paris, France
  2. 2INSERM Unit 449, Lyon, France
  3. 3Danone Vitapole, Le Plessis Robinson, France

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate whether a 5-week low–glycemic index (LGI) diet versus a high–glycemic index (HGI) diet can modify glucose and lipid metabolism as well as total fat mass in nondiabetic men.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In this study, 11 healthy men were randomly allocated to 5 weeks of an LGI or HGI diet separated by a 5-week washout interval in a crossover design.

    RESULTS—The LGI diet resulted in lower postprandial plasma glucose and insulin profiles and areas under the curve (AUCs) than the HGI diet. A 5-week period of the LGI diet lowered plasma triacylglycerol excursion after lunch (AUC, P < 0.05 LGI vs. HGI). These modifications were associated with a decrease in the total fat mass by ∼700 g (P < 0.05) and a tendency to increase lean body mass (P < 0.07) without any change in body weight. This decrease in fat mass was accompanied by a decrease in leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase RNAm quantities in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS—We concluded that 5 weeks of an LGI diet ameliorates some plasma lipid parameters, decreases total fat mass, and tends to increase lean body mass without changing body weight. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the expression of some genes implicated in lipid metabolism. Such a diet could be of benefit to healthy, slightly overweight subjects and might play a role in the prevention of metabolic diseases and their cardiovascular complications.

    Footnotes

    • Address correspondence and reprint requests to Professor G. Slama, Department of Diabetes, INSERM U341, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, 1 Place du Parvis Nôtre-Dame, 75004 Paris, France. E-mail: gerard.slama{at}htd.ap-hop-paris.fr.

      Received for publication 11 September 2001 and accepted in revised form 17 January 2002.

      A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

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