Improvement of BMI, Body Composition, and Body Fat Distribution With Lifestyle Modification in Japanese Americans With Impaired Glucose Tolerance
- David Liao, MD1,
- Pamela J. Asberry, RN1,
- Jane B. Shofer, MS1,
- Holly Callahan, BS2,
- Colleen Matthys, RD2,
- Edward J. Boyko, MD, MPH34,
- Donna Leonetti, PHD5,
- Steven E. Kahn, MB, CHB14,
- Melissa Austin, PHD6,
- Laura Newell, PHD5,
- Robert S. Schwartz, MD7 and
- Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, MD1
- 1Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- 2General Clinical Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- 3Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- 4VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington
- 5Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- 6Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- 7Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
OBJECTIVE—To determine whether diet and endurance exercise improved adiposity-related measurements in Japanese Americans with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This study compared the effects of an American Heart Association (AHA) step 2 diet (<30% of total calories as fat, <7% saturated fat, 55% carbohydrate, and < 200 mg cholesterol daily) plus endurance exercise for 1 h three times a week (treatment group) with an AHA step 1 diet (30% of total calories as fat, 10% saturated fat, 50% carbohydrate, and <300 mg cholesterol) plus stretching exercise three times a week (control group) on BMI, body composition (% fat), and body fat distribution at 6 and 24 months of follow-up in 64 Japanese American men and women with IGT, 58 of whom completed the study.
RESULTS—At 6 months, the treatment group showed significantly greater reduction in percent, body fat (−1.4 ± 0.4 vs. −0.3 ± 0.3%); BMI (−1.1 ± 0.2 vs. −0.4 ± 0.1 kg/m2); subcutaneous fat by computed tomography at the abdomen (−29.3 ± 4.2 vs. −5.7 ± 5.9 cm2), thigh (−13.2 ± 3.6 vs. −3.6 ± 3.0 cm2), and thorax (−19.6 ± 3.6 vs. −8.9 ± 2.6 cm2); and skinfold thickness at the bicep (−2.0 ± 0.6 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 mm) and tricep (−3.7 ± 0.8 vs. −0.9 ± 0.6 mm), which continued despite moving to home-based exercise for the last 18 months.
CONCLUSIONS—Diet and endurance exercise improved BMI, body composition, and body fat distribution and, thus, may delay or prevent type 2 diabetes in Japanese Americans with IGT.
- AHA, American Heart Association
- CT, computed tomography
- IGT, impaired glucose tolerance
- OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test
Address correspondence and reprint requests to David Liao, MD, Department of Medicine, Box 356426, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail:.
Received for publication 25 January 2002 and accepted in revised form 10 May 2002.
A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.
See accompany editorial on p. 1650.
- DIABETES CARE