The PedsQL™ in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Generic Core Scales and Type 1 Diabetes Module

  1. James W. Varni, PHD1,
  2. Tasha M. Burwinkle, MA2,
  3. Jenifer R. Jacobs, PHD2,
  4. Michael Gottschalk, MD, PHD34,
  5. Francine Kaufman, MD56 and
  6. Kenneth L. Jones, MD34
  1. 1Colleges of Architecture and Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
  2. 2Center for Child Health Outcomes, Children’s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, California
  3. 3Division of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, California
  4. 4Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, California
  5. 5Division of Endocrinology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, California
  6. 6Department of Pediatrics, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California


    OBJECTIVE—The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) is a modular instrument designed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents aged 2–18 years. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales are child self-report and parent proxy-report scales developed as the generic core measure to be integrated with the PedsQL disease-specific modules. The PedsQL 3.0 Type 1 Diabetes Module was designed to measure diabetes-specific HRQOL.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The PedsQL Generic Core Scales and Diabetes Module were administered to 300 pediatric patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and 308 parents.

    RESULTS—Internal consistency reliability for the PedsQL Generic Core Total Scale score (α = 0.88 child, 0.89 parent-report) and most Diabetes Module scales (average α = 0.71 child, 0.77 parent-report) was acceptable for group comparisons. The PedsQL 4.0 distinguished between healthy children and children with diabetes. The Diabetes Module demonstrated intercorrelations with dimensions of generic and diabetes-specific HRQOL.

    CONCLUSIONS—The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the PedsQL in diabetes. The PedsQL may be used as an outcome measure for diabetes clinical trials and research.


    • Address correspondence and reprint requests to James W. Varni, PhD, Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137. E-mail: jvarni{at} The PedsQL is available online at

      Received for publication 30 August 2002 and accepted in revised form 19 November 2002.

      K.L.J. served on an advisory panel for Bristol-MyersSquibb and Novartis and received honoraria for speaking engagements from Bristol-MyersSquibb, Novartis, Genetech, and Eli Lilly.

      A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

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