The PedsQL™ in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Generic Core Scales and Type 1 Diabetes Module
- James W. Varni, PHD1,
- Tasha M. Burwinkle, MA2,
- Jenifer R. Jacobs, PHD2,
- Michael Gottschalk, MD, PHD34,
- Francine Kaufman, MD56 and
- Kenneth L. Jones, MD34
- 1Colleges of Architecture and Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
- 2Center for Child Health Outcomes, Children’s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, California
- 3Division of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, California
- 4Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, California
- 5Division of Endocrinology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, California
- 6Department of Pediatrics, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
OBJECTIVE—The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) is a modular instrument designed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents aged 2–18 years. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales are child self-report and parent proxy-report scales developed as the generic core measure to be integrated with the PedsQL disease-specific modules. The PedsQL 3.0 Type 1 Diabetes Module was designed to measure diabetes-specific HRQOL.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The PedsQL Generic Core Scales and Diabetes Module were administered to 300 pediatric patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and 308 parents.
RESULTS—Internal consistency reliability for the PedsQL Generic Core Total Scale score (α = 0.88 child, 0.89 parent-report) and most Diabetes Module scales (average α = 0.71 child, 0.77 parent-report) was acceptable for group comparisons. The PedsQL 4.0 distinguished between healthy children and children with diabetes. The Diabetes Module demonstrated intercorrelations with dimensions of generic and diabetes-specific HRQOL.
CONCLUSIONS—The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the PedsQL in diabetes. The PedsQL may be used as an outcome measure for diabetes clinical trials and research.
- DQOL, Diabetes Quality of Life
- HRQOL, health-related quality of life
- PedsQL, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory
- SES, socioeconomic status.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to James W. Varni, PhD, Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3137. E-mail: http://www.pedsql.org.. The PedsQL is available online at
Received for publication 30 August 2002 and accepted in revised form 19 November 2002.
K.L.J. served on an advisory panel for Bristol-MyersSquibb and Novartis and received honoraria for speaking engagements from Bristol-MyersSquibb, Novartis, Genetech, and Eli Lilly.
A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.
- DIABETES CARE