Progression of Retinopathy During Pregnancy in Type 1 Diabetic Women Treated With Insulin Lispro
- Sirpa Loukovaara, MD1,
- Ilkka Immonen, MD, PHD1,
- Kari Atle Teramo, MD, PHD2 and
- Risto Kaaja, MD, PHD2
- 1Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
- 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
OBJECTIVE— To evaluate the progression of retinopathy during pregnancy and postpartum in (insulin-dependent) women with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin lispro or with regular human insulin.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— A prospective open study of 69 pregnant women with diabetes was performed. A total of 36 of the women were treated with insulin lispro (lispro group) and 33 were treated with conventional short-acting human insulin (regular insulin group). The retinopathy level was estimated by color fundus photography every trimester and postpartum. Glycemic control during pregnancy, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level <3 mmol/l) in 24-h glucose profile, blood pressure, and proteinuria were registered.
RESULTS— HbA1c values were similar at baseline in the first trimester but thereafter were lower in the lispro group than in the regular insulin group throughout pregnancy (P = 0.022, repeated-measures ANOVA). The number of hypoglycemic episodes did not differ between the treatment groups. In multivariable logistic regression analysis with retinopathy severity (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial level) in the third trimester as the dependent variable, only nulliparity qualified as a predictor in the model [Exp(B) = 4.0, 95% CI 1.1–13.7, P = 0.030]. Factors such as duration of diabetes, type of insulin used, mean HbA1c level throughout pregnancy, blood pressure (systolic or diastolic), preeclampsia in the current pregnancy, smoking, or prepregnancy planning did not explain the retinopathy progression.
CONCLUSIONS— Insulin lispro improves glycemic control during diabetic pregnancy compared with regular insulin with no adverse impact on progression of diabetic retinopathy.
- DCCT, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial
- ETDRS, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study
- RP level, retinopathy level
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Risto Kaaja, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 2, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail:.
Received for publication 12 April 2002 and accepted in revised form 24 December 2002.
None of the authors has any proprietary interest in the medications used in the study.
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