Stages of Change for Healthy Eating in Diabetes
Relation to demographic, eating-related, health care utilization, and psychosocial factors
- Michael Vallis, PHD1,
- Laurie Ruggiero, PHD2,
- Geoffrey Greene, PHD3,
- Helen Jones, RN, MSN4,
- Bernard Zinman, MD4,
- Susan Rossi, RN, PHD3,
- Lynn Edwards, PDT, MHSA1,
- Joseph S. Rossi, PHD3 and
- James O. Prochaska, PHD3
- 1Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre and Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
- 2University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
- 3University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island
- 4Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
OBJECTIVES—To identify diabetes-related characteristics of individuals at different stages of readiness to change to healthy, low-fat eating.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Stage-based differences in demographic, eating-related, health care utilization, and psychosocial factors were examined in a sample of 768 overweight (BMI >27 kg/m2) individuals with diabetes enrolled in a randomized behavioral intervention trial.
RESULTS—Stage-based differences occurred for type 1 diabetic participants on percent of calories from fat and number of daily vegetable servings. For type 2 diabetic participants, sex, disease-specific quality of life, percent calories from fat, and number of daily vegetables servings differed across stages. Those in action stages were more likely to be female and have a better quality of life and healthier eating habits. Type 2 diabetic insulin-requiring participants in action stages were more likely to be married. Social support was highest for those in the contemplation stage and lowest for those in the action stage. Type 2 diabetic participants on pills in the action stages were older, had a lower BMI, ate more fruit, were nonsmokers, recently attended diabetes education, had a better quality of life and social support, and had less stress. One anomalous finding for type 2 diabetic participants was that precontemplators scored similarly to those in action stages.
CONCLUSIONS—These data validate the Transtheoretical Model, where those in the action stages displayed healthier eating. They also indicate that demographic and psychosocial factors may mediate readiness to change diet. Precontemplators were a heterogeneous group and may need individually tailored interventions.
- DISC, Diabetes Stages of Change
- PTC, Pathways to Change Diabetes
- TAU, treatment as usual
- TTM, Transtheoretical Model
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Michael Vallis, Ph.D., Diabetes Management Centre, Room 330, Bethune Bldg., Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 1278 Tower Rd., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9, Canada. E-mail:.
Received for publication 5 September 2002 and accepted in revised form 25 November 2002.
M.V., L.R., H.J., B.Z., S.R., and J.S.R. have received honoraria and/or research funding from Lifescan, Inc.
A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.
See accompanying editorial, p. 1624.
- DIABETES CARE