Behavioral and Clinical Factors Associated With Depression Among Individuals With Diabetes

  1. Wayne Katon, MD1,
  2. Michael Von Korff, SCD2,
  3. Paul Ciechanowski, MD, MPH1,
  4. Joan Russo, PHD1,
  5. Elizabeth Lin, MD, MPH2,
  6. Gregory Simon, MD, MPH2,
  7. Evette Ludman, PHD2,
  8. Edward Walker, MD1,
  9. Terry Bush, PHD2 and
  10. Bessie Young, MD, MPH3
  1. 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington
  2. 2Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington
  3. 3Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Wayne J. Katon, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Box 356560, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific, Seattle, WA 98195-6560. E-mail: wkaton{at}u.washington.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE—The goal of this study was to determine the behavioral and clinical characteristics of diabetes that are associated with depression after controlling for potentially confounding variables.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A population-based mail survey was sent to patients with diabetes from nine primary care clinics of a health maintenance organization. The Patient Health Questionnaire was used to diagnose depression, and automated diagnostic, pharmacy, and laboratory data were used to measure diabetes treatment intensity, HbA1c levels, and diabetes complications.

RESULTS—Independent factors that were associated with a significantly higher likelihood of meeting criteria for major depression included younger age, female sex, less education, being unmarried, BMI ≥30 kg/m2, smoking, higher nondiabetic medical comorbidity, higher numbers of diabetes complications in men, treatment with insulin, and higher HbA1c levels in patients <65 years of age. Independent factors associated with a significantly higher likelihood of meeting criteria for minor depression included younger age, less education, non-Caucasian status, BMI ≥30 kg/m2, smoking, longer duration of diabetes, and a higher number of complications in older (≥65 years) patients.

CONCLUSIONS—Smoking and obesity were associated with a higher likelihood of meeting criteria for major and minor depression. Diabetes complications and elevated HbA1c were associated with major depression among demographic subgroups: complications among men and HbA1c among individuals <65 years of age. Older patients with a higher number of complications had an increased likelihood of minor depression.

Footnotes

  • A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

    • Accepted January 11, 2004.
    • Received November 3, 2003.
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