Use of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) With Diabetic Patients

Relationship to patient characteristics, receipt of care, and self-management

  1. Russell E. Glasgow, PHD,
  2. Holly Whitesides, BS,
  3. Candace C. Nelson, MS and
  4. Diane K. King, MS, OTR
  1. Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Denver, Colorado
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Russell E. Glasgow, PhD, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, 335 Road Runner Ln., Penrose, CO 81240. E-mail: russg{at}


OBJECTIVE—There is a dearth of information on the extent to which diabetic patients receive care congruent with the chronic care model (CCM) and evidence-based behavioral counseling. This study evaluates a new instrument to fill this gap.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A heterogeneous sample of 363 type 2 diabetic patients completed the original Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC), along with additional items that allowed it to be scored according to the “5As” (ask, advise, agree, assist, and arrange) model of behavioral counseling. We evaluated relationships between survey scores and patient characteristics, quality of diabetes care, and self-management.

RESULTS—Findings replicated those of the initial PACIC validation study but with a much larger sample of diabetic patients and more Latinos. Areas of CCM activities reported least often were goal setting/intervention tailoring and follow-up/coordination. The 5As scoring revealed that patients were least likely to receive assistance with problem solving and arrangement of follow-up support. Few demographic or medical characteristics were related to PACIC or 5As scores, but survey scores were significantly related to quality of diabetes care received and level of physical activity.

CONCLUSIONS—The PACIC and the new 5As scoring method appear useful for diabetic patients. Its use is encouraged in future research and quality improvement studies.


  • A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

    • Accepted August 17, 2005.
    • Received July 5, 2005.
| Table of Contents