Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in an Adult Type 1 Diabetes Population and a Comparable General Population

  1. David M. Maahs, MD1,
  2. Gregory L. Kinney, MPH2,
  3. Paul Wadwa, MD1,
  4. Janet K. Snell-Bergeon, MPH2,
  5. Dana Dabelea, MD, PHD2,
  6. John Hokanson, MPH, PHD2,
  7. James Ehrlich, MD3,
  8. Satish Garg, MD1,
  9. Robert H. Eckel, MD4 and
  10. Marian J. Rewers, MD, PHD12
  1. 1Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado
  2. 2Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado
  3. 3Colorado Heart Imaging, Denver, Colorado
  4. 4Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to David M. Maahs, MD, Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9th Ave., Denver, CO 80262. Email: david.maahs{at}uchsc.edu


OBJECTIVE—To compare the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a population-representative sample of adults with type 1 diabetes and comparable nondiabetic control subjects.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In 2000–2002, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study enrolled 1,416 individuals aged 19–56 years with no known history of coronary artery disease: 652 type 1 diabetic patients (46% male, mean age 37 years) and 764 nondiabetic control subjects (50% male, mean age 39 years). Subjects were asked if they had been told by a physician that they had hypertension or were on a blood pressure medication. Blood pressure was measured using standardized Joint National Committee (JNC) protocol.

RESULTS—Type 1 diabetic subjects, compared with nondiabetic subjects, had higher rates of hypertension prevalence (43 vs. 15%, P < 0.001), awareness (53 vs. 45%, P = 0.11), treatment (87 vs. 47%, P < 0.001), and control (55 vs. 32%, P < 0.001) for the JNC 6 goal (130/85 mmHg). Only 42% of all type 1 diabetic hypertensive subjects met the new JNC 7 goal (130/80 mmHg). Type 1 diabetic subjects had better blood pressure control (72 vs. 32%, P < 0.0001), using 140/90 mmHg as a common measure. The majority of treated subjects were on a single antihypertensive agent (75 vs. 64%).

CONCLUSIONS—Subjects with type 1 diabetes have higher rates of hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control than nondiabetic subjects. However, hypertension remains largely uncontrolled, even if treated in high-risk populations, such as type 1 diabetic subjects and undiagnosed individuals in the general population. Achieving more stringent blood pressure goals will require increased attention and may necessitate the use of multiple antihypertensive agents.


  • A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

    • Accepted October 22, 2004.
    • Received June 28, 2004.
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