Comparison of Glargine Insulin Versus Rosiglitazone Addition in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Metformin Plus Sulfonylurea

  1. Curtis Triplitt, PHARMD,
  2. Leonard Glass, MD,
  3. Yoshiniro Miyazaki, MD,
  4. Estela Wajcberg, MD,
  5. Amalia Gastaldelli, PHD,
  6. Elena De Filippis, MD,
  7. Eugenio Cersosimo, MD, PHD and
  8. Ralph A. DeFronzo, MD
  1. From the Diabetes Division, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and the Texas Diabetes Institute, San Antonio, Texas
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Ralph A. DeFronzo, MD, Diabetes Division, MSC 7886, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900. E-mail: albarado{at}uthscsa.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE—We sought to examine the mechanisms by which the addition of glargine insulin or rosiglitazone improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects poorly controlled on maximally effective doses of metformin plus sulfonylurea.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Subjects (aged 47 ± 11 years, BMI 31 ± 5 kg/m2, HbA1c [A1C] 9.4 ± 1.3%) received bedtime glargine insulin (titrated based on the fasting plasma glucose [FPG], n = 10) or rosiglitazone (4 mg twice daily, n = 10). At baseline and after 4 months, A1C was measured and an oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h euglycemic insulin (80 mU/m2 per min) clamp with [3-3H]glucose were performed.

RESULTS—A1C and FPG decreased similarly in the glargine insulin (9.1 ± 0.4 to 7.6 ± 0.3% and 212 ± 14 to 139 ± 5 mg/dl, respectively, both P < 0.0001) and rosiglitazone (9.4 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4% and 223 ± 14 to 160 ± 19 mg/dl, respectively, both P < 0.005) groups. After 4 months, endogenous glucose production (EGP) declined similarly with glargine insulin (2.27 ± 0.10 to 1.73 ± 0.12 mg · kg−1 · min−1, P < 0.0001) and rosiglitazone (2.21 ± 0.12 to 1.88 ± 0.12 mg · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.01). The hepatic insulin resistance index declined in the rosiglitazone group (32 ± 3 to 21 ± 1 mg · kg−1 · min−1 × μU/ml, P = 0.03 vs. baseline and P < 0.05 vs. glargine insulin) and did not change in the glargine group (22 ± 5 to 20 ± 3 mg · kg−1 · min−1 × μU/ml, P = NS). At 4 months, glargine insulin (3.6 ± 0.5 to 4.2 ± 0.4 mg · kg−1 · min−1, P < 0.01) and rosiglitazone (2.7 ± 0.3 to 3.8 ± 0.3 mg · kg−1 · min−1, P < 0.0005) increased Rd, but the increment was greater in the rosiglitazone group (P < 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure was reduced only by rosiglitazone (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS—Triple therapy with glargine insulin or rosiglitazone similarly reduced A1C, primarily by suppressing basal EGP (hepatic). Glargine insulin reduced basal EGP by increasing plasma insulin levels, while rosiglitazone decreased basal hepatic glucose production by improving hepatic insulin sensitivity.

Footnotes

  • C.T. and L.G. contributed equally to this work.

    A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

    The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    • Accepted August 3, 2006.
    • Received March 14, 2006.
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