Depression Treatment and Satisfaction in a Multicultural Sample of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

  1. Mary de Groot, PHD1,
  2. Brenda Pinkerman, PHD1,
  3. Julie Wagner, PHD2 and
  4. Erin Hockman, MS1
  1. 1Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio
  2. 2Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut
  1. Address correspondencereprint requests to Mary de Groot, PHD, Ohio University, 239 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701. E-mail: degroot{at}


OBJECTIVE—To assess rates of depressive symptoms, depression treatment, and satisfaction in a multicultural sample of individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This study was conducted with a cross-sectional community-based survey design.

RESULTS—The sample (n = 221) was predominantly female (60.3%), had type 2 diabetes (75%), and was middle class with a mean (±SD) age of 54 ± 12 years. A total of 53% were white. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) (mean 16.4 ± 11.3). Using conservative thresholds (CESD score ≥22), 25.3% of participants reported clinically significant depression. Rates of depression did not differ by ethnic group or diabetes type. The majority (76%) of depressed participants reported treatment (52% antidepressants, 63% mental health providers, 19% alternative healers, and 15% herbal remedies). African Americans were less likely to report any depression treatment, to receive antidepressant medications, or receive treatment from a mental health professional compared with whites. Participants with high depressive symptoms reported general satisfaction with depression treatment experiences.

CONCLUSIONS—High rates of depressive symptoms were observed across ethnic groups, yet significant differences in use of depression treatment existed across ethnic groups. Those seeking depression treatment reported satisfaction with a variety of depression treatment modalities. Increased depression screening and treatment may be beneficial for ethnically diverse patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.


  • A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.

    The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    • Accepted December 14, 2005.
    • Received July 26, 2005.
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