Vinegar Ingestion at Bedtime Moderates Waking Glucose Concentrations in Adults With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes
- From the Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona
- Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Carol S. Johnston, 7001 E. Williams Field Rd., Mesa, AZ 85212. E-mail:
Given the importance of maintaining acceptable blood glucose concentrations, there is much interest in identifying foods and diet patterns that will help individuals with diabetes manage their condition. Based on previous data indicating that vinegar ingestion at mealtime reduces postprandial glycemia (1–4), the aim of this pilot study was to examine whether vinegar ingestion at bedtime reduces the next-morning fasting glucose concentration in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—
Four men and seven women (aged 40–72 years) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (by a physician) who were not taking insulin completed the study. Participants provided a clinically determined A1C reading from a recent (<2 months) blood analysis. All participants gave written informed consent, and the study was approved by the institutional review board at Arizona State University.
Participants maintained 24-h diet records for 3 days and measured fasting glucose at 0700 h for 3 consecutive days with a calibrated glucometer before the start of the study. Participants were instructed to continue usual prescription medication use during the study. Utilizing a randomized crossover design with a 3- to 5-day washout period between treatments, participants followed a standardized meal plan for 2 days, consuming either 2 Tbsp apple cider vinegar or water at bedtime with 1 oz cheese (8 g protein, 1 g carbohydrate, and 1.5 g fat). The standardized meal plan was designed to reflect the individual's typical diet. …