International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values: 2008

  1. Fiona S. Atkinson, RD,
  2. Kaye Foster-Powell, RD and
  3. Jennie C. Brand-Miller, PHD
  1. From the Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Corresponding author: J. Brand-Miller, j.brandmiller{at}


OBJECTIVE—To systematically tabulate published and unpublished sources of reliable glycemic index (GI) values.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A literature search identified 205 articles published between 1981 and 2007. Unpublished data were also included where the data quality could be verified. The data were separated into two lists: the first representing more precise data derived from testing healthy subjects and the second primarily from individuals with impaired glucose metabolism.

RESULTS—The tables, which are available in the online-only appendix, list the GI of over 2,480 individual food items. Dairy products, legumes, and fruits were found to have a low GI. Breads, breakfast cereals, and rice, including whole grain, were available in both high and low GI versions. The correlation coefficient for 20 staple foods tested in both healthy and diabetic subjects was r = 0.94 (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS—These tables improve the quality and quantity of GI data available for research and clinical practice.


  • Published ahead of print at on 3 October 2008.

    J.B.M. is the director of a not-for-profit GI-based food endorsement program in Australia. F.S.A. is employed to manage the University of Sydney GI testing service.

    Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details.

    The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    • Accepted September 13, 2008.
    • Received July 8, 2008.
| Table of Contents