Effect of Supervised Progressive Resistance-Exercise Training Protocol on Insulin Sensitivity, Glycemia, Lipids, and Body Composition in Asian Indians With Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Anoop Misra, MD1,
  2. Narendra K. Alappan, MD2,
  3. Naval K. Vikram, MD2,
  4. Kashish Goel, MBBS3,
  5. Nidhi Gupta, MBBS3,
  6. Kanchan Mittal, DPT4,
  7. Suryaprakash Bhatt, MSC5 and
  8. Kalpana Luthra, PHD5
  1. 1Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital, New Delhi, India
  2. 2Department of Internal Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  3. 3Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
  4. 4Department of Physiotherapy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  5. 5Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  1. Corresponding author: Anoop Misra, anoopmisra{at}


OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the effect of supervised progressive resistance-exercise training (PRT) protocol on insulin sensitivity, glycemia (blood glucose and A1C levels), lipids, and body composition in Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes underwent 12 weeks of PRT of six muscle groups (two sets, 10 repetitions each). The subjects were evaluated with detailed anthropometry and with measurements of the disappearance of glucose per unit time (K) during the short insulin tolerance test (KITT) for assessment of insulin sensitivity; of fasting blood glucose, A1C, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP); of total body fat, regional fat, and lean body mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and of cross-sectional skeletal muscle area of upper arm and thigh by computed tomography scan.

RESULTS—Insulin sensitivity improved significantly from mean ± SD KITT 1.22 ± 0.73 to 2.13 ± 0.75 (P < 0.0001) after the intervention. Significant decline (mean difference ± SD) from baseline was recorded in levels of the following parameters: A1C (0.54 ± 0.4%, P < 0.001), fasting blood glucose (2.7 ± 2.2 mmol/l, P < 0.001), total cholesterol (0.39 ± 0.7 mmol/l, P = 0.003), serum triglycerides (0.39 ± 0.5 mmol/l, P < 0.001), and truncal and peripheral subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments (SCAT) (P < 0.001). However, no significant changes were noticed in BMI or levels of total body fat, truncal fat, lean body mass, cross-sectional skeletal muscle area of the extremities, or hsCRP levels.

CONCLUSIONS—Moderate-intensity PRT for 3 months resulted in significant improvement in insulin sensitivity, glycemia, lipids, and truncal and peripheral SCAT in patients with type 2 diabetes. Resistance training should be an integral part of exercise regimen in Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes.


  • Published ahead of print at on 3 March 2008.

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    • Accepted February 22, 2008.
    • Received December 6, 2007.
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  1. Diabetes Care vol. 31 no. 7 1282-1287
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