Type 2 Diabetes Prevention in the Real World

Three-year results of the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial

  1. Pilvikki Absetz, PHD1,
  2. Brian Oldenburg, PHD2,
  3. Nelli Hankonen, MSOCSCI1,
  4. Raisa Valve, PHD3,
  5. Heikki Heinonen, PHD1,
  6. Aulikki Nissinen, MD, PHD1,
  7. Mikael Fogelholm, SCD4,
  8. Martti Talja, MD, PHD5 and
  9. Antti Uutela, PHD1
  1. 1National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland;
  2. 2Monash University, Melbourne, Australia;
  3. 3University of Helsinki, Lahti, Finland;
  4. 4Academy of Finland, Helsinki, Finland;
  5. 5Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, Lahti, Finland.
  1. Corresponding author: Pilvikki Absetz, pilvikki.absetz{at}


OBJECTIVE We study the effectiveness of the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial at the 36-month follow-up.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 352, type 2 diabetes risk score FINDRISC = 16.2 ± 3.3, BMI 32.6 ± 5.0 kg/m2) received six lifestyle counseling sessions over 8 months. Measurements were at baseline, 12 months (88.6%), and 36 months (77.0%).

RESULTS Statistically significant risk reduction at 12 months was maintained at 36 months in weight (−1.0 ± 5.6 kg), BMI (−0.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2), and serum total cholesterol (−0.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l).

CONCLUSIONS Maintenance of risk reduction in this “real world” trial proves the intervention's potential for significant public health impact.


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    • Received January 9, 2009.
    • Accepted April 23, 2009.
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  1. Diabetes Care vol. 32 no. 8 1418-1420
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