Utilizing the Second-Meal Effect in Type 2 Diabetes: Practical Use of a Soya-Yogurt Snack

  1. Roy Taylor, MD
  1. From the Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.
  1. Corresponding author: Roy Taylor, roy.taylor{at}
  1. M.J.C. and A.J. contributed equally to this study.


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a prebreakfast high-protein snack upon postbreakfast hyperglycemia.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 10 men and women with diet- and/or metformin-controlled type 2 diabetes. Metabolic changes after breakfast were compared between 2 days: breakfast taken only and soya-yogurt snack taken prior to breakfast.

RESULTS There was a significant lower rise in plasma glucose on the snack day. The incremental area under the glucose curve was 450 ± 55 mmol · min/l on the snack day compared with 699 ± 99 mmol · min/l on the control day (P = 0.013). The concentration of plasma free fatty acids immediately before breakfast correlated with the increment in plasma glucose (r = 0.50, P = 0.013).

CONCLUSIONS Consuming a high-protein prebreakfast snack results in almost 40% reduction of postprandial glucose increment. The second-meal effect can be applied simply and practically to improve postbreakfast hyperglycemia in people with type 2 diabetes.


  • The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

  • See accompanying editorial, p. 2709.

  • Received March 25, 2010.
  • Accepted July 7, 2010.

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