International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Recommendations on the Diagnosis and Classification of Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy

  1. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel*
  1. Corresponding author: Boyd E. Metzger, bem{at}

The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) was formed in 1998 as an umbrella organization to facilitate collaboration between the various regional and national groups that have a primary or significant focus on diabetes and pregnancy. The principal objectives of IADPSG are to foster an international approach to enhancing the quality of care, facilitating research, and advancing education in the field of diabetes in pregnancy.

During 11–12 June 2008, the IADPSG sponsored an International Workshop- Conference on Gestational Diabetes Diagnosis and Classification in Pasadena, California. More than 225 conferees from 40 countries reviewed published results of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study, additional unpublished HAPO study findings, and results of other work that examined associations of maternal glycemia with perinatal and long-term outcomes in offspring. Conferees then held regional caucuses to consider clinical implications of the information that had been presented. On 13 June 2008, the IADPSG Consensus Panel (with representation from the 10 member organizations of the IADPSG and other organizations with an interest in diabetes and pregnancy) was convened. Members of the IADPSG Consensus Panel are listed in the online-only appendix, available at Subsequently, the IADPSG Consensus Panel reviewed further HAPO study results. Through this process, the consensus summarized in this report was reached.

This report represents the opinions of individual members of the IADPSG Consensus Panel and does not necessarily reflect the position of the organizations they represent. It is expected that this report will be considered by diabetes, obstetric, and other organizations and will serve as the basis for internationally endorsed criteria for the diagnosis and classification of diabetes in pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common medical complication of pregnancy, is defined as “any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy” (1,2 …

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