Dietary Phylloquinone and Menaquinones Intakes and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Yvonne T. van der Schouw, PHD1
  1. 1Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands;
  2. 2Center for Prevention and Health Services Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands;
  3. 3Center for Nutrition and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
  1. Corresponding author: Joline Beulens, j.beulens{at}


OBJECTIVE To investigate whether dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intakes are related to risk of type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from a prospective cohort study in 38,094 Dutch men and women, aged 20–70 years. Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diabetes case patients were ascertained mainly via self-report and verified against medical records.

RESULTS During 10.3 years of follow-up, 918 incident cases of diabetes were documented. In a multivariate model adjusting for diabetes risk factors and dietary factors, phylloquinone intake tended to be associated (P = 0.08) with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.81 (95% CI 0.66–0.99) for the highest versus the lowest quartile. For menaquinones intake, a linear, inverse association (P = 0.038) with risk of type 2 diabetes was observed with an HR of 0.93 (0.87–1.00) for each 10-μg increment in the multivariate model.

CONCLUSIONS This study shows that both phylloquinone and menaquinones intakes may be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.


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  1. Diabetes Care vol. 33 no. 8 1699-1705
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