Exercise-Induced Changes in Metabolic Intermediates, Hormones, and Inflammatory Markers Associated With Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity
- Kim M. Huffman, MD, PHD1,
- Cris A. Slentz, PHD2,
- Lori A. Bateman, MS2,
- Dana Thompson, PHD3,
- Michael J. Muehlbauer, PHD4,
- James R. Bain, PHD4,
- Robert D. Stevens, PHD4,
- Brett R. Wenner, PHD4,
- Virginia Byers Kraus, MD, PHD1,
- Christopher B. Newgard, PHD4,5 and
- William E. Kraus, MD2,4
- 1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina;
- 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina;
- 3Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina;
- 4Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina;
- 5Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
- Corresponding author: Kim M. Huffman, .
OBJECTIVE To understand relationships between exercise training-mediated improvements in insulin sensitivity (SI) and changes in circulating concentrations of metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory mediators.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Targeted mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers at baseline, after 6 months of exercise training, and 2 weeks after exercise training cessation (n = 53). A principal components analysis (PCA) strategy was used to relate changes in these intermediates to changes in SI.
RESULTS PCA reduced the number of intermediates from 90 to 24 factors composed of biologically related components. With exercise training, improvements in SI were associated with reductions in by-products of fatty acid oxidation and increases in glycine and proline (P < 0.05, R2 = 0.59); these relationships were retained 15 days after cessation of exercise training (P < 0.05, R2 = 0.34).
CONCLUSIONS These observations support prior observations in animal models that exercise training promotes more efficient mitochondrial β-oxidation and challenges current hypotheses regarding exercise training and glycine metabolism.
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- Received April 20, 2010.
- Accepted September 24, 2010.
- © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.
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