OBJECTIVE In the French Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort, cross-sectional analyses have shown that a higher consumption of dairy products and calcium are associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We assess the influence of dairy products on 9-year incident MetS and on impaired fasting glycemia and/or type 2 diabetes (IFG/T2D).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Men and women who completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 3 years were studied (n = 3,435). Logistic regression models were used to study associations between the average year 0 and year 3 consumption of milk and dairy products, cheese, dietary calcium density, and incident MetS and IFG/T2D after adjusting for 1) sex, age, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, fat intake and 2) additionally for BMI. Associations between dairy products and continuous variables were studied by repeated-measures ANCOVA, using the same covariates.
RESULTS Dairy products other than cheese, and dietary calcium density, were inversely associated with incident MetS and IFG/T2D; cheese was negatively associated with incident MetS. All three parameters were associated with lower diastolic blood pressure, and with a lower BMI gain. Higher cheese intake and calcium density were associated with a lower increase in waist circumference and lower triglyceride levels. Calcium density was also associated with a lower systolic blood pressure and a lower 9-year increase in plasma triglyceride levels.
CONCLUSIONS A higher consumption of dairy products and calcium was associated with a lower 9-year incidence of MetS and IFG/T2D in a large cohort drawn from the general population.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/dc10-1772/-/DC1.
See accompanying editorial, p. 1064.
- Received September 14, 2010.
- Accepted December 24, 2010.
- © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.
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