Associations of Gestational Diabetes, Existing Diabetes, and Glycosuria With Offspring Obesity and Cardiometabolic Outcomes
- Sumaiya Patel, PHD1⇓,
- Abigail Fraser, PHD1,
- George Davey Smith, DSC1,
- Robert S. Lindsay, FRCP2,
- Naveed Sattar, PHD2,
- Scott M. Nelson, MRCOG3 and
- Debbie A. Lawlor, PHD1
- 1MRC (Medical Research Council) Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, U.K.
- 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.
- 3School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.
- Corresponding author: Sumaiya Patel, .
OBJECTIVE To assess associations of gestational diabetes, existing diabetes, and glycosuria with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in offspring at adolescence.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Multivariable regression analyses were conducted in a prospective pregnancy cohort (n = 2,563–4,198 for different outcomes). Obstetric data were abstracted from clinical records. Offspring outcomes were assessed at mean age 15.5 years. Compared with those lost to follow-up, participants included in the analysis were of higher socioeconomic position. Outcomes included BMI, waist circumference, fat mass determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sBP and dBP, respectively), fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, and C-reactive protein (CRP).
RESULTS Maternal existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, and glycosuria were associated with higher offspring BMI and fat mass (z scores); however, this effect was attenuated in the confounder-adjusted model, and the CIs included the null value. Existing diabetes and gestational diabetes were associated with higher offspring fasting glucose levels (0.24 mmol/L [95% CI 0.03–0.45] and 0.20 mmol/L [0.02–0.39], respectively). Glycosuria was associated with higher fasting insulin (adjusted ratio of geometric means 1.12 [1.01–1.25]), but there were no clear associations of existing or gestational diabetes with offspring fasting insulin. There was little evidence of an association of maternal diabetes or glycosuria with offspring dBP, sBP, lipids, or CRP.
CONCLUSIONS Maternal pregnancy glycosuria, gestational diabetes, and existing diabetes show some associations with higher offspring fasting glucose and insulin assessed in adolescence but are not clearly associated with a wider range of cardiometabolic risk factors.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/dc11-1633/-/DC1.
The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of any funding body, or others whose support is acknowledged. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
- Received August 24, 2011.
- Accepted October 20, 2011.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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