High Fat Intake Leads to Acute Postprandial Exposure to Circulating Endotoxin in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects
- Alison L. Harte, PHD1,
- Madhusudhan C. Varma, MRCP1,
- Gyanendra Tripathi, PHD1,
- Kirsty C. McGee, PHD1,
- Nasser M. Al-Daghri, PHD2,
- Omar S. Al-Attas, PHD2,
- Shaun Sabico, MD2,
- Joseph P. O’Hare, MD1,
- Antonio Ceriello, MD3,
- Ponnusamy Saravanan, PHD4,
- Sudhesh Kumar, MD1 and
- Philip G. McTernan, PHD1⇓
- 1Division of Metabolic and Vascular Health, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K.
- 2College of Science, Biomarkers Research Programme and Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
- 3Insititut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Barcelona, Spain
- 4University of Warwick and George Eliot Hospital, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, Warwick Medical School (University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire Campus) Coventry, U.K.
- Corresponding author: Philip G. McTernan, .
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high–saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein) after an overnight fast (nonobese control [NOC]: age 39.9 ± 11.8 years [mean ± SD], BMI 24.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2, n = 9; obese: age 43.8 ± 9.5 years, BMI 33.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2, n = 15; impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]: age 41.7 ± 11.3 years, BMI 32.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2, n = 12; type 2 diabetic: age 45.4 ± 10.1 years, BMI 30.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2, n = 18). Blood was collected before (0 h) and after the meal (1–4 h) for analysis.
RESULTS Baseline endotoxin was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic and IGT subjects than in NOC subjects, with baseline circulating endotoxin levels 60.6% higher in type 2 diabetic subjects than in NOC subjects (P < 0.05). Ingestion of a high-fat meal led to a significant rise in endotoxin levels in type 2 diabetic, IGT, and obese subjects over the 4-h time period (P < 0.05). These findings also showed that, at 4 h after a meal, type 2 diabetic subjects had higher circulating endotoxin levels (125.4%↑) than NOC subjects (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS These studies have highlighted that exposure to a high-fat meal elevates circulating endotoxin irrespective of metabolic state, as early as 1 h after a meal. However, this increase is substantial in IGT and type 2 diabetic subjects, suggesting that metabolic endotoxinemia is exacerbated after high fat intake. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in a compromised metabolic state such as type 2 diabetes, a continual snacking routine will cumulatively promote their condition more rapidly than in other individuals because of the greater exposure to endotoxin.
- Received August 18, 2011.
- Accepted November 4, 2011.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.