A Prospective Study of the Association Between Quantity and Variety of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Incident Type 2 Diabetes
- Andrew J. Cooper, MPHIL1,
- Stephen J. Sharp, MSC1,
- Marleen A.H. Lentjes, MSC2,
- Robert N. Luben, BSC2,
- Kay-Tee Khaw, FRCP, PHD3,
- Nicholas J. Wareham, FRCP, PHD1 and
- Nita G. Forouhi, FFPH, PHD1⇓
- 1MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, U.K.
- 2Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Strangeways Research Laboratory, MRC Centre for Nutritional Epidemiology in Cancer Prevention and Survival, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.
- 3Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, U.K.
- Corresponding author: Nita G. Forouhi, .
OBJECTIVE The association between quantity of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not clear, and the relationship with variety of intake is unknown. The current study examined the association of both quantity and variety of F&V intake and risk of T2D.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined the 11-year incidence of T2D in relation to quantity and variety of fruit, vegetables, and combined F&V intake in a case-cohort study of 3,704 participants (n = 653 diabetes cases) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk study, who completed 7-day prospective food diaries. Variety of intake was derived from the total number of different items consumed in a 1-week period. Multivariable, Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.
RESULTS A greater quantity of combined F&V intake was associated with 21% lower hazard of T2D (HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.62–1.00]) comparing extreme tertiles, in adjusted analyses including variety. Separately, quantity of vegetable intake (0.76 [0.60–0.97]), but not fruit, was inversely associated with T2D in adjusted analysis. Greater variety in fruit (0.70 [0.53–0.91]), vegetable (0.77 [0.61–0.98]), and combined F&V (0.61 [0.48–0.78]) intake was associated with a lower hazard of T2D, independent of known confounders and quantity of intake comparing extreme tertiles.
CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that a diet characterized by a greater quantity of vegetables and a greater variety of both F&V intake is associated with a reduced risk of T2D.
- Received December 8, 2011.
- Accepted February 16, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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