Meat Consumption and Its Association With C-Reactive Protein and Incident Type 2 Diabetes
The Rotterdam Study
- Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh, MSC1⇓,
- Anneleen Kuijsten, PHD1,
- Basia Tigcheler, MSC1,
- Eric J.G. Sijbrands, MD, PHD2,
- Frank J.A. van Rooij, DSC3,
- Albert Hofman, MD, PHD3,
- Jacqueline C.M. Witteman, PHD3 and
- Edith J.M. Feskens, PHD1
- 1Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands
- 2Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
- 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
- Corresponding author: Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh, .
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether intake of different types of meat is associated with circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Our analysis included 4,366 Dutch participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 12.4 years, 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Intake of red meat, processed meat, and poultry was derived from a food frequency questionnaire, and their association with serum high-sensitivity CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. Their association with risk of type 2 diabetes was examined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, including age, sex, family history of diabetes, and lifestyle and dietary factors.
RESULTS An increment of 50 g of processed meat was associated with increased CRP concentration (βprocessed meat = 0.12; P = 0.01), whereas intake of red meat and poultry was not. When comparing the highest to the lowest category of meat intake with respect to diabetes incidence, the adjusted relative risks were as follows: for red meat (1.42 [95% CI 1.06–1.91]), for processed meat (1.87 [1.26–2.78]), and for poultry (0.95 [0.74–1.22]). Additional analysis showed that the associations were not affected appreciably after inclusion of CRP into the model. After adjustment for BMI, however, the association for red meat attenuated to 1.18 (0.88–1.59).
CONCLUSIONS Intake of processed meat is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes. It appears unlikely that CRP mediates this association.
- Received September 30, 2011.
- Accepted February 29, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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