Regression From Prediabetes to Normal Glucose Regulation Is Associated With Reduction in Cardiovascular Risk: Results From the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study
- Leigh Perreault1⇑,
- Marinella Temprosa2,
- Kieren J. Mather3,
- Ed Horton4,
- Abbas Kitabchi5,
- Mary Larkin6,
- Maria G. Montez7,
- Debra Thayer8,
- Trevor J. Orchard9,
- Richard F. Hamman10 and
- Ronald B. Goldberg11
- for the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group*
- 1Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO
- 2The Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, Rockville, MD
- 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN
- 4Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA
- 5University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN
- 6Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
- 7University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
- 8Medstar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD
- 9University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
- 10Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO
- 11Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL
- Corresponding author: Leigh Perreault, .
OBJECTIVE Restoration of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in people with prediabetes significantly decreases the risk of future diabetes. We sought to examine whether regression to NGR is also associated with a long-term decrease in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Framingham (2008) score (as an estimate of the global 10-year CVD risk) and individual CVD risk factors were calculated annually for the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study years 1–10 among those patients who returned to NGR at least once during the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) compared with those who remained with prediabetes or those in whom diabetes developed during DPP (N = 2,775).
RESULTS The Framingham scores by glycemic exposure did not differ among the treatment groups; therefore, pooled estimates were stratified by glycemic status and were adjusted for differences in risk factors at DPP baseline and in the treatment arm. During 10 years of follow-up, the mean Framingham 10-year CVD risk scores were highest in the prediabetes group (16.2%), intermediate in the NGR group (15.5%), and 14.4% in people with diabetes (all pairwise comparisons P < 0.05), but scores decreased over time for those people with prediabetes (18.6% in year 1 vs. 15.9% in year 10, P < 0.01). The lower score in the diabetes group versus other groups, a declining score in the prediabetes group, and favorable changes in each individual risk factor in all groups were explained, in part, by higher or increasing medication use for lipids and blood pressure.
CONCLUSIONS Prediabetes represents a high-risk state for CVD. Restoration of NGR and/or medical treatment of CVD risk factors can significantly reduce the estimated CVD risk in people with prediabetes.
- Received March 13, 2014.
- Accepted May 15, 2014.
- © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.