OBJECTIVE It remains unclear how many hours of sleep are associated with the lowest risk of type 2 diabetes. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed and Embase were searched up to 20 March 2014 for prospective observational studies that assessed the relationship of sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes. Both semiparametric and parametric methods were used.
RESULTS Ten articles with 11 reports were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 18,443 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained among 482,502 participants with follow-up periods ranging from 2.5 to 16 years. A U-shaped dose-response relationship was observed between sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes, with the lowest risk observed at a sleep duration category of 7–8 h per day. Compared with 7-h sleep duration per day, the pooled relative risks for type 2 diabetes were 1.09 (95% CI 1.04–1.15) for each 1-h shorter sleep duration among individuals who slept <7 h per day and 1.14 (1.03–1.26) for each 1-h increment of sleep duration among individuals with longer sleep duration.
CONCLUSIONS Our dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies shows a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes, with the lowest type 2 diabetes risk at 7–8 h per day of sleep duration. Both short and long sleep duration are associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, underscoring the importance of appropriate sleep duration in the delay or prevention of type 2 diabetes.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/dc14-2073/-/DC1.
- Received August 30, 2014.
- Accepted November 17, 2014.
- © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.