OBJECTIVE 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a biomarker of glucose peaks and has been associated with clinical cardiovascular disease. However, the association between 1,5-AG and subclinical cardiovascular disease is unknown. We investigated the association of 1,5-AG with subclinical myocardial damage (assessed by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T [hs-cTnT]) and atherosclerosis (assessed by carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT] and carotid plaque).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured 1,5-AG, hs-cTnT, CIMT, and carotid plaque among 10,072 people without diabetes and 681 with diabetes who attended the second examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (baseline, 1990–1992). We used Poisson regression to characterize the associations between 1,5-AG and prevalent elevated hs-cTnT, thick CIMT, or carotid plaque. Among 9,145 people with a second hs-cTnT measurement 6 years later, we used multinomial logistic regression to assess associations with incident elevation in hs-cTnT.
RESULTS We found that in people with diabetes, lower 1,5-AG (<6 μg/mL) was cross-sectionally associated with elevated hs-cTnT (prevalence ratio 2.06, 95% CI 1.23–3.46) compared with higher 1,5-AG (≥10 μg/mL). Associations in people without diabetes and with thick CIMT or the presence of carotid plaque were less robust. Low 1,5-AG was prospectively associated with the 6-year incident elevation in hs-cTnT (relative risk 2.90, 95% CI 1.23–6.85) in people with diabetes. All associations were strongly attenuated with further adjustment for HbA1c.
CONCLUSIONS In people with diabetes, 1,5-AG was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease, particularly chronic subclinical myocardial damage. Nonetheless, whether observed associations are truly independent of average glycemia is unclear.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/dc16-0840/-/DC1.
- Received April 18, 2016.
- Accepted July 5, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.