Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy, Sexual Dysfunction, and Urinary Incontinence in Women With Type 1 Diabetes
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated associations among cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), female sexual dysfunction (FSD), and urinary incontinence (UI) in women with type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 580 women with T1DM in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study (DCCT/EDIC). CAN was defined as: 1) R-R variation <15 with deep breathing or 2) R-R variation of 15–19.9 plus Valsalva ratio ≤1.5 or a supine-to-standing drop of 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. A Sandvik Severity Index of 3–12 defined UI, and a Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-R) score ≥22.75 defined FSD. Multivariable models estimated associations among CAN, FSD, and UI.
RESULTS At EDIC year 17, FSD was observed in 41% of women and UI in 30%. No statistically significant associations were observed between measures of CAN at DCCT closeout and subsequent report of FSD or UI. At EDIC year 16/17, there was a 53% increased odds of having UI with a Valsalva ratio ≤1.5. At both EDIC year 13/14 and EDIC year 16/17, a 5-unit increase in R-R variation was associated with a 1.11 greater odds of having FSD.
CONCLUSIONS In women with T1DM in the DCCT/EDIC, we found significant increased odds of FSD and UI with specific measures of CAN. In long-standing T1DM, CAN may predict development of FSD and may be a useful surrogate for generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy.
- Received January 10, 2016.
- Accepted June 6, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.