Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Myocardial Fibrosis With Early Cardiac Dysfunction in Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study
OBJECTIVE We investigated the association of cardiovascular risk factors and myocardial fibrosis with early cardiac dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants with type 1 diabetes aged 13–39 years without a known history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 1,441) were recruited into the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (1983–1993) and subsequently followed in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study (1994 to present). Seven hundred fourteen participants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging (2007–2009) with late gadolinium enhancement sequences to assess ischemic and nonischemic scars and tagging sequences to evaluate circumferential strain. CMR-derived T1 mapping also was used to assess interstitial fibrosis. The influence of cardiovascular risk factors and myocardial scar on circumferential strain was assessed using linear regression.
RESULTS Circumferential dysfunction was consistently associated with older age, male sex, smoking history, obesity, higher blood pressure, lower HDL cholesterol, and higher mean HbA1c. Participants with nonischemic scars (n = 16) had the worst circumferential function compared with those without scars (β ± SE 1.32 ± 0.60; P = 0.03). In sex-adjusted models, the correlation between T1 times and circumferential strain was not significant. In the fully adjusted models, a trend toward circumferential dysfunction in participants with nonischemic scars was found. Left ventricular ejection fraction was not associated with risk factors but was significantly lower if a myocardial scar was present.
CONCLUSIONS Traditional CVD risk factors and elevated HbA1c levels are major factors related to early cardiac dysfunction in type 1 diabetes. Nonischemic myocardial scar, possibly as a marker of chronic exposure to known risk factors, may predict early cardiac dysfunction mediated by diffuse myocardial fibrosis as seen in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/dc16-1889/-/DC1.
↵* A complete list of participants in the DCCT/EDIC Research Group can be found at www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa1409463#t=article.
- Received September 1, 2016.
- Accepted November 20, 2016.
- © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.