Ingestion of Diet Soda before a Glucose Load Augments GLP-1 Secretion

  1. Rebecca J. Brown, M.D. (brownrebecca{at},
  2. Mary Walter, Ph.D. and
  3. Kristina I. Rother, M.D., M.H.Sc.
  1. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD


    Objective: To determine the effect of artificial sweeteners on glucose, insulin and GLP-1 in humans.

    Research Design and Methods: Twenty-two healthy volunteers (mean age 18.5 ± 4.2 years) underwent two 75g oral glucose tolerance tests with frequent measurements of glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 for 180 minutes. Ten minutes prior to the glucose load, subjects drank 240 mL of diet soda or carbonated water, in randomized order.

    Results: Glucose excursions were similar following carbonated water and diet soda. Serum insulin levels tended to be higher after diet soda, without statistical significance. GLP-1 peak and area under the curve (AUC) were significantly higher with diet soda (AUC 79.2 ± 50.1 pmol/L·180min) vs. carbonated water (AUC 53.5 ± 29.7 pmol/L·180min, p = 0.003).

    Conclusions: Artificial sweeteners synergize with glucose to enhance GLP-1 release in humans. This increase in GLP-1 secretion may be mediated via stimulation of sweet-taste receptors on L-cells by artificial sweetener.


      • Received June 29, 2009.
      • Accepted September 17, 2009.

    This Article

    1. Diabetes Care
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