Associations of Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone with Surrogate Markers of Insulin Resistance among U.S. Adults without Physician-Diagnosed Diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

  1. Guixiang Zhao, MD, PhD (GZhao{at},
  2. Earl S. Ford, MD, MPH and
  3. Chaoyang Li, MD, PhD
  1. Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia


    Objective- To examine whether concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with surrogate markers of insulin resistance (IR) in U.S. adults without physician-diagnosed diabetes.

    Research design and methods- Cross-sectional data (n=3,206) from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed.

    Results- The age-adjusted prevalence of hyperinsulinemia, high homeostatic model assessment-IR, high glycohemoglobin, and fasting and 2-hour hyperglycemia decreased linearly across quintiles of 25(OH)D but increased linearly across quintiles of PTH (except for a quadratic trend for fasting hyperglycemia). After extensive adjustment for potential confounders, the relationships between 25(OH)D and the markers of IR and 2-hour hyperglycemia persisted. Only hyperinsulinemia was positively associated with PTH (P<0.05).

    Conclusions- Among U.S. adults without physician-diagnosed diabetes, low concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were associated with markers of IR. The role of PTH in IR deserves further investigation.


      • Received May 20, 2009.
      • Accepted October 13, 2009.

    This Article

    1. Diabetes Care
    1. All Versions of this Article:
      1. dc09-0924v1
      2. 33/2/344 most recent