Vitamin D Deficiency and Coronary Artery Calcification in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes

  1. Marian Rewers, MD2
  1. 1. Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver
  2. 2. Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver
  3. 3. Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver
  4. 4. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover NJ


Objective: To examine the relationship between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), polymorphisms in vitamin D associated genes, and the presence and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in adults with type 1 diabetes.

Research Design and Methods: This prospective study included 374 non-Hispanic white (NHW) subjects with type 1 diabetes (mean age 40 ± 9 years; 46% male). CAC was measured at the baseline, three and six-year follow-up visits by electron beam CT. Serum 25[OH]D levels were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry at the 3-year visit.

Results: Normal (> 30 ng/ml), insufficient (20-30 ng/ml), and deficient (< 20 ng/ml) 25-OHD levels were present in, respectively, 65%, 25%, and 10% of the individuals with type 1 diabetes. 25[OH]D deficiency was associated with the presence of CAC at the 3-year visit, odds ratio (OR) = 3.3 (95% CI 1.6-7.0), adjusting for age, sex, and hours of daylight. In subjects free of CAC at the 3-year visit, 25[OH]D deficiency predicted development of CAC over the next 3 years in those with the vitamin D receptor M1T CC genotype (OR=6.5 [1.1-40.2], p=0.04), than those with the CT or TT genotype (OR=1.6 [0.3-8.6], p=0.57).

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency independently predicts prevalence and development of coronary calcification, a marker of coronary artery plaque burden, in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

  • Received May 11, 2010.
  • Accepted October 11, 2010.

This Article

  1. Diabetes Care
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