Age of Islet Autoantibody Appearance and Mean Levels of Insulin, But Not GAD or IA-2 Autoantibodies, Predict Age of Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young
OBJECTIVE We evaluated predictors of progression to diabetes in children with high-risk HLA genotypes and persistent islet autoantibodies.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) followed 2,542 children with autoantibodies measured to GAD, IA-2, and insulin.
RESULTS Persistent islet autoantibodies developed in 169 subjects, and 55 of those progressed to diabetes. Children expressing three autoantibodies showed a linear progression to diabetes with 74% cumulative incidence by the 10-year follow-up compared with 70% with two antibodies and 15% with one antibody (P < 0.0001). Both age of appearance of first autoantibody and insulin autoantibody (IAA) levels, but not GAD or IA-2 autoantibodies, were major determinants of the age of diabetes diagnosis (r = 0.79, P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS In the DAISY cohort, 89% of children who progressed to diabetes expressed two or more autoantibodies. Age of diagnosis of diabetes is strongly correlated with age of appearance of first autoantibody and IAA levels.
- Received November 3, 2010.
- Accepted March 14, 2011.
- © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.
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