Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low–Glycemic Index Diet on Pregnancy Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
- Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, MNUTRDIET, APD1,
- Tania P. Markovic, PHD2,
- Nimalie Perera, MBBS2,
- Deborah Foote, NUTRDIET, APD3,
- Peter Petocz, PHD4,
- Glynis P. Ross, MBBS2 and
- Jennie C. Brand-Miller, PHD1⇓
- 1School of Molecular Bioscience and Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
- 2Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia
- 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia
- 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
- Corresponding author: Jennie Brand-Miller, .
OBJECTIVE The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is rising. There is little evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of one dietary therapy over another. We aimed to investigate the effect of a low–glycemic index (GI) versus a conventional high-fiber diet on pregnancy outcomes, neonatal anthropometry, and maternal metabolic profile in GDM.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ninety-nine women (age 26–42 years; mean ± SD prepregnancy BMI 24 ± 5 kg/m2) diagnosed with GDM at 20–32 weeks’ gestation were randomized to follow either a low-GI (LGI) (n = 50; target GI ~50) or a high-fiber moderate-GI diet (HF) (n = 49; target GI ~60). Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records. Pregnancy outcomes were collected from medical records.
RESULTS The LGI group achieved a modestly lower GI than the HF group (mean ± SEM 47 ± 1 vs. 53 ± 1; P < 0.001). At birth, there was no significant difference in birth weight (LGI 3.3 ± 0.1 kg vs. HF 3.3 ± 0.1 kg; P = 0.619), birth weight centile (LGI 52.5 ± 4.3 vs. HF 52.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.969), prevalence of macrosomia (LGI 2.1% vs. HF 6.7%; P = 0.157), insulin treatment (LGI 53% vs. HF 65%; P = 0.251), or adverse pregnancy outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS In intensively monitored women with GDM, an LGI diet and a conventional HF diet produce similar pregnancy outcomes.
- Received May 26, 2011.
- Accepted July 29, 2011.
- © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.
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