OBJECTIVE We examined associations of birth weight and weight gain in infancy and early childhood with type 2 diabetes (DM) risk in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 6,511 young adults from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Exposures were weight at birth, at 24 and 48 months, and adult weight, and conditional weight gain (CWG, deviation from expected weight gain) between these ages. Outcomes were adult fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose or DM (IFG/DM), and insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment (IR-HOMA, three cohorts).
RESULTS Birth weight was inversely associated with adult glucose and risk of IFG/DM (odds ratio 0.91[95% CI 0.84–0.99] per SD). Weight at 24 and 48 months, and CWG 0–24 and 24–48 months, were unrelated to glucose and IFG/DM; however, CWG 48 months–adult was positively related to IFG/DM (1.32 [1.22–1.43] per SD). After adjusting for adult waist circumference, birth weight, weight at 24 and 48 months, and CWG 0–24 months were inversely associated with glucose and IFG/DM. Birth weight was unrelated to IR-HOMA, whereas greater CWG at 0–24 and 24–48 months, and 48 months–adults predicted higher IR-HOMA (all P < 0.001). After adjusting for adult waist circumference, birth weight was inversely related to IR-HOMA.
CONCLUSIONS Lower birth weight and accelerated weight gain after 48 months are risk factors for adult glucose intolerance. Accelerated weight gain between 0 and 24 months did not predict glucose intolerance but did predict higher insulin resistance.
- Received March 6, 2011.
- Accepted October 7, 2011.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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