25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and In Vivo Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function Relative to Insulin Sensitivity in Black and White Youth
- Kumaravel Rajakumar, MD, MS1,
- Javier de las Heras, MD2,3,
- SoJung Lee, PHD2,
- Michael F. Holick, PHD, MD4 and
- Silva A. Arslanian, MD2,5⇓
- 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Academic Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Weight Management and Wellness, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- 3Division of Pediatric Metabolism, Hospital de Cruces, Barakaldo, Vizcaya, Spain
- 4Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts
- 5Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes Mellitus, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- Corresponding author: Silva A. Arslanian, .
K.R. and J.H. contributed equally to this study.
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationships between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, disposition index (DI), in black and white youth.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed in banked specimens in healthy youth aged 8 to 18 years who had existing data on hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity and secretion, and measurements of body composition, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT).
RESULTS A total of 183 research volunteers (mean ± SD; age, 12.6 ± 2.2 year; 98 white, 98 male, 92 obese) were studied. Analysis of HbA1c, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin sensitivity, and DI across quartiles of plasma 25(OH)D revealed no differences among whites. In blacks, the observed significance of higher insulin sensitivity and DI in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D disappeared after adjusting for any of the adiposity measures (BMI or fat mass or VAT or SAT). The difference in insulin sensitivity (9.4 ± 1.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.5 mg/kg/min per μU/mL; P = 0.006) between 25(OH)D nondeficient (≥20 ng/mL) versus deficient (<20 ng/mL) black youth also was negated when adjusted for adiposity.
CONCLUSIONS In healthy youth, plasma 25(OH)D concentrations bear no independent relationship to parameters of glucose homeostasis and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity. It remains to be determined whether in youth with dysglycemia the relationships are different and whether vitamin D optimization enhances insulin sensitivity and β-cell function.
- Received September 20, 2011.
- Accepted November 19, 2011.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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