Whole-Blood Tissue Factor Procoagulant Activity Is Elevated in Type 1 Diabetes and Effects of Hyperglycemia and Hyperinsulinemia
- Anamika Singh, PHD1,
- Guenther Boden, MD2⇓,
- Carol Homko, RN, PHD2,
- Jay Gunawardana, MS1 and
- A. Koneti Rao, MD1,3
- 1Sol Sherry Thrombosis Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- 2Division of Endocrinology/Diabetes/Metabolism and the Clinical Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- 3Division of Hematology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Corresponding author: Guenther Boden, .
OBJECTIVE To determine tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF-PCA) in patients with type 1 diabetes and to examine effects of hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia plus hyperinsulinemia on TF-PCA.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We have determined circulating TF-PCA and other coagulation factors under basal (hyperglycemic) conditions, after acute correction of hyperglycemia, in response to 24 h of selective hyperglycemia, and in response to 24 h of hyperglycemia plus hyperinsulinemia in nine type 1 diabetic patients and in seven nondiabetic control subjects.
RESULTS As shown previously in patients with type 2 diabetes, basal TF-PCA and plasma coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) were higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in nondiabetic control subjects. However, in contrast with type 2 diabetes, normalizing glucose did not decrease the elevated TF-PCA levels, and raising glucose or glucose plus insulin levels did not increase TF-PCA.
CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have elevated circulating TF-PCA and FVIIa levels and are in a procoagulant state that may predispose them to acute cardiovascular events. The mechanisms regulating TF-PCA in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are different and should be further explored.
- Received October 28, 2011.
- Accepted February 11, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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