Prepregnancy Consumption of Fruits and Fruit Juices and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

A prospective cohort study

  1. Cuilin Zhang, MD, PHD4
  1. 1Program of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans, Louisiana
  2. 2Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
  3. 3Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
  4. 4Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
  1. Corresponding author: Cuilin Zhang, zhangcu{at}


OBJECTIVE Examine the association of prepregnancy habitual consumption of fruits and fruit juices and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective study among women with at least one singleton pregnancy in the Nurses’ Health Study II from 1991 to 2001.

RESULTS Among 13,475 women, 860 reported a first diagnosis of GDM. The adjusted relative risks (RRs) for GDM from the lowest to highest quintile of whole fruit consumption were 1.00 (referent), 0.80 (95% CI 0.65–0.98), 0.90 (0.73–1.10), 0.80 (0.64–1.00), and 0.93 (0.76–1.16), respectively. The corresponding RRs for fruit juice were 1.00, 0.82 (0.66–1.01), 0.78 (0.63–0.96), 0.84 (0.68–1.04), and 1.00 (0.81–1.23).

CONCLUSION These data suggest that prepregnancy higher consumption of whole fruits is not associated with an increased GDM risk. The association between fruit juices and GDM risk appears to be nonlinear.

  • Received October 27, 2011.
  • Accepted February 7, 2012.

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