Improved Biomedical and Psychological Outcomes 1 Year After Structured Education in Flexible Insulin Therapy for People With Type 1 Diabetes
The U.K. DAFNE experience
- David Hopkins, FRCP1⇓,
- Ian Lawrence, FRCP2,
- Peter Mansell, MD3,
- Gillian Thompson, BSC4,
- Stephanie Amiel, MD5,
- Michael Campbell, PHD6 and
- Simon Heller, MD7
- 1Department of Diabetic Medicine, King’s College Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, U.K.
- 2Department of Diabetes, University Hospitals of Leicester National Health Service Trust, Leicester, U.K.
- 3School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K.
- 4Central DAFNE Office, Northumbria Healthcare Foundation Trust, Northumbria, U.K.
- 5Diabetes Research Group, King’s College School of Medicine, London, U.K.
- 6School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.
- 7Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Scheffield, Sheffield, U.K.
- Corresponding author: David Hopkins, .
OBJECTIVE DAFNE (Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating), a structured education program in flexible insulin therapy, has been widely adopted in the U.K. after validation in a randomized trial. To determine benefits in routine practice, we collected biomedical and psychological data from all participants attending during a 12-month period.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS HbA1c, weight, self-reported hypoglycemia awareness, severe hypoglycemia frequency, PAID (Problem Areas In Diabetes), HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire scores were recorded prior to DAFNE and after 1 year.
RESULTS Complete baseline and follow-up HbA1c data were available for 639 (54.9%) of 1,163 attendees. HbA1c fell from 8.51 ± 1.41 (mean ± SD) to 8.24 ± 1.29% (difference 0.27 [95% CI 0.16–0.38]; P < 0.001), with a greater mean fall of 0.44% from baseline HbA1c >8.5%. Severe hypoglycemia rate fell from 1.7 ± 8.5 to 0.6 ± 3.7 episodes per person per year (1.1 [0.7–1.4]) and hypoglycemia recognition improved in 43% of those reporting unawareness. Baseline psychological distress was evident, with a PAID score of 25.2 and HADS scores of 5.3 (anxiety) and 4.8 (depression), falling to 16.7 (8.5 [6.6–10.4]), 4.6 (0.7 [0.4–1.0]), and 4.2 (0.6 [0.3–0.8]), respectively (all P < 0.001 at 1 year). Clinically relevant anxiety and depression (HADS ≥8) fell from 24.4 to 18.0% and 20.9 to 15.5%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS A structured education program delivered in routine clinical practice not only improves HbA1c while reducing severe hypoglycemia rate and restoring hypoglycemia awareness but also reduces psychological distress and improves perceived well-being.
- Received August 17, 2011.
- Accepted March 25, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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